Upaya Mempertahankan Kemerdekaan melalui Jalur Diplomasi

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Upaya Mempertahankan Kemerdekaan melalui Jalur Diplomasi | Perjuangan mempertahankan kemerdekaan Indonesia tidak hanya dilakukan dengan mengangkat senjata atau perang, namun juga melalui jalur diplomasi. Penyelesaian sengketa kemerdekaan Indonesia menghadapi Belanda melalui jalur diplomasi melibatkan banyak negara. Perjuangan melalui diplomasi dilakukan bangsa Indonesia dengan mencari dukungan internasional dan berunding secara langsung dengan pihak Belanda. Jalur diplomasi dipilih oleh pemerintah Indonesia pada waktu itu adalah dengan pertimbangan untuk mengurangi korban jiwa dari kedua belah pihak juga untuk memperoleh pengakuan internasional sebagai negara yang merdeka. Diplomasi yang ditempuh oleh pemerintah Indonesia antara lain melalui pertemuan. Berikut beberapa jalur diplomasi yang telah dilakukan oleh bangsa Indonesia untuk menyelesaikan sengketa dengan Belanda. 

1. Pertemuan Pendahuluan

Letnan Jenderal Christison selaku panglima AFNEI (Allied Forces Netherlands East Indies) yaitu pasukan sekutu yang dikirim ke Indonesia setelah selesainya Perang Dunia II untuk melucuti persenjataan tentara Jepang, membebaskan tawanan perang Jepang, dan memulangkan tentara Jepang kembali ke negaranya. Ia mulai memprakasai perundingan antara Republik Indonesia dengan Belanda untuk menyelesaikan pertikaian antara dua negara. Maka ia pun melakukan serakaian pertemuan pendahuluan. Archibald Clark Kerr dan Lord Killearn dari Inggris bertindak sebagai penengah. Perundingan dimulai pada tanggal 10 Februari 1946. Pada awal perundingan, H.J. van Mook menyampaikan pernyataan politik pemerintah Belanda. Kemudian pada tanggal 12 Maret 1946, pemerintah Republik Indonesia menyampaikan pernyataan balasan.

2. Perundingan Hoge Veluwe

Perundingan Hoge Veluwe ditempuh oleh pemerintah Republik Indonesia dan Belanda di Hoge Veluwe, Belanda pada tanggal 14–25 April 1946. Pertemuan ini diprakarsai oleh seorang diplomat Inggris bernama Sir Archibald Clark Keer. Pada perundingan ini, delegasi Indonesia diwakili oleh Mr. Suwandi, Dr. Sudarsono, dan Mr. A.K. Pringgodigdo sedangkan Belanda diwakili oleh Dr. H.J. van Mook. Perundingan ini mengalami kegagalan karena Belanda menolak untuk mengakui kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia yang terdiri dari Jawa, Madura, dan Sumatra secara de jure. Belanda malah menawarkan kepada Indonesia sebagai wilayah federasi kerajaan Belanda. Tentu saja bangsa Indonesia menolak tawaran Belanda tersebut. Karena belum ada kesepakatan antara kedua belah pihak, maka kedua negara merencanakan perundingan selanjutnya.

3. Perundingan Gencatan Senjata

Terjadinya pertempuran antara tentara Indonesia dengan Belanda pasca proklamasi kemerdekaan dan tidak ada kesepakatan antara kedua belah pihak mengakibatkan banyaknya korban jiwa. Banyaknya insiden pertempuran antara pejuang Indonesia dengan pasukan Sekutu dan Belanda mendorong diadakannya perundingan gencatan senjata. Perundingan diikuti wakil dari Indonesia,Sekutu, dan Belanda. Perundingan dilaksanakan dari tanggal 20 – 30 September 1946. Namun perundingan ini tidak mencapai hasil yang diinginkan.

4. Perundingan Indonesia-Belanda 7 Oktober 1946

Karena perundingan gencatan senjata yang telah dilaksanakan sebelumnya mengalami kegagalan, maka Lord Killearn merencakan perundingan lanjutan. Perundingan ini dilaksanakan di rumah Konsul Jenderal Inggris di Jakarta pada tanggal 7 Oktober 1946. Delegasi Indonesia diketuai Perdana Menteri Sutan Syahrir. Delegasi Belanda diketuai oleh Prof. Schermerhorn. Dalam perundingan tersebut, masalah gencatan senjata yang gagal perundingan tanggal 30 September 1946 disetujui untuk dibicarakan lagi dalam tingkat panitia yang diketuai Lord Killearn. Perundingan tingkat panitia menghasilkan persetujuan gencatan senjata sebagai berikut.
  1. Gencatan senjata diadakan atas dasar kedudukan militer pada waktu itu dan atas dasar kekuatan militer Sekutu serta Indonesia.
  2. Dibentuk sebuah Komisi Bersama Gencatan Senjata untuk masalah-masalah teknis pelaksanaan gencatan senjata.
Di bidang politik, delegasi Pemerintah Indonesia dan komisi umum Belanda sepakat untuk menyelenggarakan perundingan politik “secepat mungkin”.

4. Perjanjian Linggarjati

Perundingan Linggarjati dilaksanakan di Linggarjati, Cirebon, Jawa barat. Perundingan ini juga diprakarsai oleh seorang diplomat Inggris bernama Lord Killearn, pertemuan tersebut diawali dengan pertemuan antara wakil Indonesia dan Belanda di Istana Negara dan Pegangsaan Timur 56. Perundingan Linggarjati merupakan tindak lanjut dari perundingan sebelumnya. Perundingan di Linggarjati dihadiri oleh beberapa tokoh juru runding, antara lain sebagai berikut:
  1. Inggris, sebagai pihak penengah diwakili olehLord Killearn.
  2. Indonesia diwakili oleh Sutan Syahrir (Ketua), Mohammad Roem (anggota), Mr. Susanto Tirtoprojo, S.H. (anggota), Dr. A.K Gani (anggota).
  3. Belanda, diwakili Prof. Schermerhorn (Ketua), De Boer (anggota), dan Van Pool (anggota)
Perundingan di Linggarjati tersebut menghasilkan keputusan yang disebut perjanjian Linggarjati. Berikut ini adalah isi Perjanjian Linggarjati:
  1. Belanda mengakui secara de facto Republik Indonesia dengan wilayah kekuasaan meliputi Sumatera, Jawa, dan Madura. Belanda sudah harusmeninggalkan daerah de facto paling lambat pada tanggal 1 Januari 1949.
  2. Republik Indonesia dan Belanda akan bekerja sama dalam membentuk negara Serikat dengan nama RIS. Negara Indonesia Serikat akan terdiri dari RI, Kalimantan dan Timur Besar. Pembentukan RIS akan diadakan sebelum tanggal 1 Januari 1949.
  3. RIS dan Belanda akan membentuk Uni Indonesia- Belanda dengan Ratu Belanda sebagai ketua. Perjanjian Linggarjati ditandatangani oleh Belanda dan Indonesia pada tanggal 25 Maret 1947 dalam suatu upacara kenegaraan di Istana Negara Jakarta.
Perjanjian Linggarjati memiliki dampak positif dan negatif bagi bangsa Indonesia. Berikut dampak positif dan negatif perjanjian Linggarjati:
  1. Segi positifnya ialah adanya pengakuan de facto atas RI yang meliputi Jawa, Madura, dan Sumatera.
  2. Segi negatifnya ialah bahwa wilayah RI dari Sabang sampai Merauke, yang seluas Hindia Belanda dulu tidak tercapai.

5. Melibatkan Komisi Tiga Negara

Perjanjian Linggarjati tampaknya sulit dilaksanakan. Belanda bahkan melancarkan Agresi Militer I pada tanggal 21 Juli 1947. Sehingga pada tanggal 18 September 1947, Dewan Keamanan PBB membentuk sebuah Komisi Jasa Baik. Komisi ini kemudian terkenal dengan sebutan Komisi Tiga Negara. Anggota KTN terdiri dari Richard Kirby (wakil Australia), Paul van Zeeland (wakil Belgia), dan Frank Graham (wakil Amerika Serikat). Dalam pertemuannya pada tanggal 20 Oktober 1947, KTN memutuskan bahwa tugas KTN di Indonesia adalah untuk membantu menyelesaikan sengketa antara RI dan Belanda dengan cara damai. Pada tanggal 27 Oktober 1947, KTN tiba di Jakarta untuk memulai pekerjaannya.

6. Perjanjian Renville

Jalur Diplomasi dalam Upaya Mempertahankan Kemerdekaan dilaksanakan melalui Perjanjian Renville yang merupakan tindak lanjut dari usaha yang dilaksanakan Komisi Tiga Negara (KTN). KTN berusaha mendekatkan RI dan Belanda untuk berunding. Atas usul KTN, perundingan dilakukan di tempat yang netral, yaitu di atas kapal pengangkut pasukan Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat “USS Renville”. Oleh karena itu, perundingan tersebut dinamakan Perjanjian Renville. Perjanjian ini dilaksanakan pada tanggal 8 Desember 1947 – 17 Januari 1948. Adapun yang berperan dalam Perjanjian Renville diantaranya adalah:
  1. Frank Graham (ketua), Paul van Zeeland (anggota), dan Richard Kirby (anggota) sebagai mediator dari PBB.
  2. Delegasi Indonesia Republik Indonesia diwakili oleh Amir Syarifuddin (ketua), Ali Sastroamidjojo (anggota), Haji Agus Salim (anggota), Dr. J. Leimena (anggota), Dr. Coa Tik Ien (anggota), dan Nasrun (anggota).
  3. Delegasi Belanda Belanda diwakili oleh R. Abdulkadir Wijoyoatmojo (ketua), Mr. H.A.L. van Vredenburgh (anggota), Dr. P. J. Koets (anggota), dan Mr. Dr. Chr. Soumokil (anggota).
Hasil dari perundingan Renville ditandatangani pada tanggal 17 Januari 1948 yang berisi sebagai berikut:
  1. Penghentian tembak-menembak.
  2. Daerah-daerah di belakang garis van Mook harus dikosongkan dari pasukan RI.
  3. Belanda bebas membentuk negara-negara federal di daerah-daerah yang didudukinya dengan melalui plebisit terlebih dahulu.
  4. Membentuk Uni Indonesia-Belanda. Negara Indonesia Serikat yang ada di dalamnya sederajat dengan Kerajaan Belanda. Persetujuan Renville ditandatangani oleh Amir Syarifuddin (Indonesia) dan Abdulkadir Wijoyoatmojo (Belanda).
Perjanjian Renville pada kenyataannya semakin memojokkan kedudukan Indonesia. Keadaan semakin parah karena Belanda melakukan blokade ekonomi terhadap Indonesia. Itulah sebabnya hasil Perjanjian Renville mengundang reaksi keras, baik dari kalangan partai politik maupun TNI.
  • Bagi kalangan partai politik, hasil perundingan itu memperlihatkan kekalahan perjuangan diplomasi pemerintah Indonesia.
  • Bagi TNI, hasil perundingan itu mengakibatkan harus meninggalkan sejumlah wilayah pertahanan yang telah susah payah dibangun.

7. Resolusi DK PBB

Belanda ternyata tidak menunjukkan itikad baik kepada Indonesia. Hal ini dikarenakan belanda melancarkan Agresi Militer Belanda II yaitu pada tanggal 28 Januari 1949. Peristiwa ini mendorong Dewan Keamanan PBB sebuah revolusi. Adapun isi Revolusi Dewan Keamanan PBB adalah sebagai berikut:
  1. Belanda harus menghentikan semua operasi militer dan pihak Republik Indonesia diminta untuk menghentikan aktivitas gerilya. Kedua pihak harus bekerja sama untuk mengadakan perdamaian kembali.
  2. Pembebasan dengan segera dan tidak bersyarat semua tahanan politik dalam daerah RI oleh Belanda sejak 19 Desember 1948.
  3. Belanda harus memberikan kesempatan kepada  pemimpin RI untuk kembali ke Yogyakarta dengan segera. Kekuasaan RI di daerah-daerah RI menurut batas-batas Persetujuan Renville dikembalikan kepada RI.
  4. Perundingan-perundingan akan dilakukan dalam waktu yang secepat-cepatnya dengan dasar Persetujuan Linggarjati, Persetujuan Renville, dan berdasarkan pembentukan suatu Pemerintah Interim Federal paling lambat tanggal 15 Maret 1949. Pemilihan Dewan Pembuat Undang Undang Dasar Negara Indonesia Serikat selambat-lambatnya pada tanggal 1 Juli 1949.
  5. Komisi Jasa-jasa Baik (KTN) berganti nama menjadi Komisi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa untuk Indonesia (United Nation for Indonesia atau UNCI). UNCI bertugas untuk: membantu melancarkan perundinganperundingan untuk mengurus pengembalian kekuasaan pemerintah RI, mengamati pemilihan, mengajukan usul mengenai berbagai hal yang dapat membantu tercapainya penyelesaian.

8. Perjanjian Roem-Royen

Sejalan dengan upaya melalui jalur senjata, usaha-usaha melalui jalui diplokasi untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia terus dilakukan. UNCI mengadakan perundingan dengan pemimpin-pemimpin RI di Bangka. Sementara itu, Dewan Keamanan PBB pada tanggal 23 Maret 1949 memerintahkan UNCI untuk membantu pelaksanaan resolusi DK PBB pada tanggal 28 Januari 1949. UNCI berhasil membawa Indonesia dan Belanda ke meja perundingan. Pada tanggal 17 April 1949 dimulailah perundingan pendahuluan di Jakarta. Delegasi Indonesia dipimpin Mr. Mohammad Roem. Delegasi Belanda dipimpin Dr. van Royen. Pertemuan dipimpin Merle Cohran dari UNCI yang berasal dari Amerika Serikat. Akhirnya pada tanggal 7 Mei 1949 tercapai persetujuan. Persetujuan itu dikenal dengan nama “Roem-Royen Statement”. Dalam perundingan ini, setiap delegasi mengeluarkan pernyataan sendiri-sendiri. Pernyataan delegasi Indonesia antara lain sebagai berikut:
  1. Soekarno dan Hatta dikembalikan ke Yogyakarta.
  2. Kesediaan mengadakan penghentian tembakmenembak.
  3. Kesediaan mengikuti Konferensi Meja Bundar setelah pengembalian Pemerintah RI ke Yogyakarta.
  4. Bersedia bekerja sama dalam memulihkan perdamaian dan tertib hukum.
Sedangkan pernyataan dari pihak Belanda adalah sebagai berikut:
  1. Menghentikan gerakan militer dan membebaskan tahanan politik.
  2. Menyetujui kembalinya Pemerintahan Republik Indonesia ke Yogyakarta.
  3. Menyetujui Republik Indonesia sebagai bagian dari negara Indonesia Serikat.
  4. Berusaha menyelenggarakan Konferensi Meja Bundar.
Pada tanggal 6 Juli 1949, Soekarno dan Hatta dikembalikan ke Yogyakarta. Pengembalian Yogyakarta ke tangan Republik Indonesia diikuti dengan penarikan mundur tentara Belanda dari Yogyakarta. Tentara Belanda berhasil menduduki Yogyakarta sejak tanggal 19 Desember 1948 – 6 Juli 1949.

9. Konferensi Meja Bundar (KMB)

Konferensi Meja Bundar dilaksanakan di Den Haag, Belanda pada tanggal 23 Agustus 1949 – 2 November 1949. Konferensi ini dipimpin oleh Perdana Menteri Belanda, W. Drees dan dihadiri oleh:
  1. Delegasi Republik Indonesia dipimpin Mohammad Hatta,
  2. Delegasi BFO dipimpin Sultan Hamid,
  3. Delegasi Kerajaan Belanda dipimpin J. H. van Maarseveen, dan
  4. UNCI diketuai oleh Chritchley.
Dalam konferensi dibentuk tiga komisi, yaitu: Komisi Ketatanegaraan, Komisi Keuangan, dan Komisi Militer. Kesulitan-kesulitan yang muncul dalam perundingan adalah:
  1. dari Komisi Ketatanegaraan menyangkut pembahasan mengenai Irian Jaya,
  2. dari Komisi Keuangan menyangkut pembicaraan mengenai masalah utang.
Berikut ini adalah beberapa hasil Konferensi Meja Bundar di Den Haag:
  1. Belanda menyerahkan kedaulatan atas Indonesia sepenuhnya dan tanpa syarat kepada RIS.
  2. Republik Indonesia Serikat (RIS) terdiri atas Republik Indonesia dan 15 negara federal. Corak pemerintahan RIS diatus menurut konstitusi yang dibuat oleh delegasi RI dan BFO selama Konferensi Meja Bundar berlangsung.
  3. Melaksanakan penyerahan kedaulatan selambat- lambatnya tanggal 30 Desember 1949.
  4. Masalah Irian Jaya akan diselesaikan dalam waktu setahun sesudah pengakuan kedaulatan.
  5. Kerajaan Belanda dan RIS akan membentuk Uni Indonesia-Belanda. Uni ini merupakan badan konstitusi bersama untuk menyelesaikan kepentingan umum.
  6. Menarik mundur pasukan Belanda dari Indonesia dan membubarkan KNIL. Anggota KNIL boleh masuk ke dalam APRIS.
  7. RIS harus membayar segala utang Belanda yang diperbuatnya semenjak tahun 1942.

10. Pengakuan Kedaulatan

Upaya perjuangan mempertahankan kemerdekaan mencapai puncaknya yaitu dilaksanakannya penandatanganan naskah pengakuan kedaulatan Indonesia  yang dilaksanakan pada waktu yang bersamaan yaitu di Indonesia dan Belanda pada tanggal 27 Desember 1949. Di negeri Belanda, penandatanganan naskah pengakuan kedaulatan dilaksanakan di ruang takhta Istana Kerajaan Belanda. Ratu Juliana, P.M. Dr. Willem Drees, Menteri Seberang Lautan Mr. A.M.J.A. Sassen, dan Mohammad Hatta membubuhkan tanda tangan pada naskah pengakuan kedaulatan. Sementara itu, di Jakarta, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX dan A.H.J. Lovink (Wakil Tinggi Mahkota) membubuhkan tanda tangan pada naskah pengakuan kedaulatan. Pada tanggal yang sama, di Yogyakarta dilakukan penyerahan kedaulatan dari Republik Indonesia kepada Republik Indonesia Serikat. Dengan demikian akhirnya perjuangan mempertahankan kemerdekaan Indonesia, baik melalui jalur diplomasi maupun jalur perang menghadapi Belanda berakhir. Silahkan baca artikel Usaha Perjuangan Mempertahankan Kemerdekaan Indonesia.
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