Mobilisasi Kota Bukittinggi Pada Masa Kolonialisme Hindia Belanda

Binance Review 2018: Comprehensive Crypto Coin Exchange Binance is a Chinese cryptocurrency exchange. Binance was created after attracting funds via an ICO (Initial Coin Offering – creating a new digital asset, backed by the project. Changpeng Zhao, former CTO at OKCoin is currently at the helm of Binance. They are known for fast processing speeds coupled with an ability to process enormous numbers of transactions (1.4 million) each second. It’s been quickly gaining ground in market share cementing a place as a top 20 exchange in terms of volume. Binance transaction has reached a new level and currently score tenth place in the world. Binance offers a generous daily withdrawal limit. They don’t need identity confirmation when the per day remittance is within limit of 2 BTC. Binance Features Binance’s trading platform is web-based. Furthermore it offers two distinct trading layouts, a more simple one and a “Pro” version. Their ICO has created tokens named BNB that are traded on the exchange. They can also be used as a method of paying your trading fees, which will reduce them by 50%. Binance offers their own startup incubator platform as well. The trading functionality of the platform was of more interest so we focused on that for the purposes of this Binance review. Below is the “standard platform” look: Below is the advanced display: BINANCE Advantages Large Cryptocurrency Pairings Supported The competitive advantage of Binance’s platform is the ability to trade every major cryptocurrency pairing in existence. Coinbase and Gemini only offer trading of a handful of the larger market capitalization cryptos, whereas Binance allows users access to trade over 100 crypto coins. Low Fees AND LIMITS The fee structure is simple as well as being priced. There is a flat 0.10% fee on all trading. The 0.10% fee on trades is one basis point. If you were to buy a cryptocoin at 100 you’d have to sell it higher for 101 to profit. Ease of Setup Setting up an account is straight forward, similar to signing up for an account with other service providers. Another advantage is there is no lengthy waiting time, users are able to get setup and running within minutes. This is due to the fact that fiat is not accepted on the exchange. Binance Provides Significant Trading Volume Binance is currently the third largest exchange by cryptocurrency trading volume, according to coinmarketcap. At the time of writing, Binance’s volume was an astounding $5,441,711,452 in the last 24 hours! This volume demonstrates their users clear trust in the exchange, as well as the accessibility of the exchange and ease of transacting. This type of volume requires substantial servers and computational power. Wide Support of Cryptocurrencies No Verification Requirements Binance doesn’t require identity confirmation in instances when the per day remittance is within the limit of 2 BTC. The attractiveness of setting up an account with Binance may be greater for a user in a jurisdiction where certain exchanges choose not to allow new users because of restrictions imposed by that location’s governing regulatory bodies. Ease of Use You’re able to buy and sell crypto pairings with market or limit orders while specifying the amount or percentage you wish to trade for each transaction. BINANCE Disadvantages No Leveraged Margin Trading Margin trading is not available at Binance. Margin trading is a system which allows you to trade with more money than you actually have in your account. Your balance is then used as a guarantee to maintain your position open. No Fiat Functionality This has both advantages and disadvantages. Government fiat deposits are not currently enabled in Binance, instead this exchange focuses only on the digital side of things. Clients can deposit and withdraw the coins supported at the exchange. This means that you’re not able to deposit or withdraw in fiat currency, only cryptocurrency is supported. Relatively New Binance was started in only July 2017, according to this Reddit post. This is a major concern, as they don’t have a history. Despite all the good things people are saying on Reddit. it’s worth mentioning as many exchanges have come and gone. Binance appears to have a visible co-founder, unlike BTC-E. Conclusion Accessible option for obtaining Different Cryptocoins Binance is the most rapidly-growing and communally praised cryptocurrency exchange available. It’s China based location may spell issues in the future due to rumors of a “crackdown“. that currently accounts for a large amount of volume. Although Binance targets high frequency traders, it is quite useful for those getting beginning with altcoin trading. Their lack of fiat money deposits may be difficult to swallow for beginners, only supported cryptocurrencies may be deposited. Binance boasts a large number of various cryptocoins for trading. The main benefit is the ability convert between cryptocurrencies. For instance exchanges such as Coinbase and Gemini are more limited in the number of cryptocurrencies offered. The interface is also conducive to support shorter duration hold time day trading of cryptocurrencies if one were so inclined to deploy that strategy. Binance is an exchange worth looking into and integrating into crypto trading just for their large amount of supported crypto coins.
Mobilisasi Kota Bukittinggi Pada Masa Kolonialisme Hindia Belanda - Kota Bukittinggi begitu  menarik untuk dibicarakan, Bukan hanya saja karena peran sejarah yang telah dimainkannya selama sejak kurun waktu satu setengah abad yang lalu, 2tetapi juga keberadaannya sebagai kota kedua di Sumatera Barat, setelah Padang yang menjadi ibukota provinsi itu. Sejak tiga dasa warsa yang lalu, Bukittinggi telah pula berkembang menjadi pusat perdagangan konveksi untuk kawasan Sumatera, sehingga disebut sebagai Tanah Abang II.

Mobilisasi Kota Bukittinggi Pada Masa Kolonialisme Hindia Belanda


Pertumbuhan Wilayah Kota Bukittinggi

Cikal bakal kota Bukittinggi dimulai dari sebuah pasar, yang didirikan dan dikelola oleh para penghulu Nagari Kurai. Pada awalnya Pasar itu diadakan setiap hari Sabtu, kemudian setelah semakin ramai diadakan pula setiap hari Rabu. Oleh karena pasar itu terletak di salah satu "bukik nan tatinggi" (bukit yang tertinggi), maka lama kelamaan berubah menjadi Bukittinggi. Akhirnya nama Bukittinggi itu pun digunakan untuk menyebut pasar, sekaligus masyarakat dan Nagari Kurai. Sebelum kedatangan Belanda di daerah Dataran Tinggi Agam (1823), pasar Bukittinggi telah ramai didatangi oleh pedagang dan penduduk sekitarnya. Pada tahun 1926 Kapten Bauer, Kepala Opsir Militer Belanda untuk Dataran Tinggi Agam, mendirikan benteng Fort de Kock, di Bukit Jirek yang terletak sekitar 300 m di sebelah Utara pasar Bukittinggi. Kawasan bukit itu diberikan oleh para penghulu Nagari Kurai kepada Kapten Bauer dengan perjanjian akan saling membantu dalam mengahadap Kaum Paderi.

Sejak berdirinya Fort de Kock dan Belanda berhasil mengalahkan Kaum Paderi serta menguasai Minangkabau, maka perkembangan Bukittinggi pada tahap selanjutnya lebih ditentukan oleh kebijakan pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Secara perlahan pemerintah kolonial memperluas "wilayahnya" dengan meminjam atau membeli tanah kepada para penghulu Nagari Kurai. Bahkan, pada kasus-kasus tertentu, "kepemilikan" tanahnya itu ditentukan secara sepihak oleh Belanda. Pada tahun 1856 Belanda meminjam tanah perbukitan yang terletak disekitar pasar Bukittinggi dan jika nanti tidak diperlukan lagi, maka Belanda akan mengembalikannya kepada para penghulu Nagari Kurai. Tanah itu meliputi 7 (tujuh) bukit yang bertautan satu sama lainnya dan mempunyai lembah-lembah yang sempit.

Ketujuh bukit itu adalah Bukit Jirek, Bukit Sarang Gagak, Bukit Tambun Tulang, Bukit Cubadak Bungkuak, Bukit Bulek, Bukit Malambuang, dan Bukit Parak Kopi. Di atas ketujuh bukit itulah, secara bertahap Belanda membangun berbagai infrastruktur untuk kepentingan kolonialnya, seperti kantor dan perumahan, gudang-gudang kopi, los-los pasar, perkampungan Cina, dan India. Akan tetapi, daerah itu tidak memiliki dataran yang luas untuk dijadikan berbagai keperluan militer. Oleh karena itu pada tahun 1861 Belanda membeli tanah dataran di bagian Selatan Bukittinggi dengan harga f.46 .090,-. Daerah itu dibangun untuk perkantoran militer, lapangan, perumahan perwira, asrama, tangsi, rumah sakit, gedung sekolah, dan sebagainya. Mengikuti perkembangan pembangunan berbagai infrastruktur itu, maka kota Bukittinggi juga semakin berkembang dan maju. Oleh karena itu pada tahun 1888 pemerintah menetapkan sebagai sebuah "kota"

Pembangunan Infrastruktur Kota Bukittinggi (pasar)

Pada awalnya secara pisik Pasar Bukittinggi masih sangat sederhana, yakni berupa warung-warung yang tonggaknya terbuat dari bambu atau kayu dan beratap daun rumbia atau daun ilalang. Separuh bagian bawahnya didinding, sedang bagian atasnya dibiarkan terbuka, sehingga ketika pasar sudah usai kan terlihat kerangkanya. Warung itu akan ditinggal oleh pedagang selama seminggu, kemudian mereka akan datang pada hari (Sabtu dan Rabu) pasar berikutnya. Bagi pedagang yang tidak mempunyai warung, biasanya mereka menggelar dagangannya di atas tanah dengan beralaskan katidiang (bakul) atau daun pisang. Upaya pertama yang dilakukan Belanda untuk mengembangkan Pasar Bukittinggi itu adalah dengan mendatarkan lokasinya sehingga terlihat semakin luas. Kemudian, di sekelilingnya dibangun jalan-jalan dan selokan-selokan.

Untuk itu kepada pemilik pedati yang datang ke Bukittinggi diharuskan membawa batu dan pasir. Sedangkan pekerjanya adalah tenaga kerja rodi, yang didatangkan dari nagari-nagari dalam wilayah Onderafdeeling Agam Tua, seperti Nagari Banuhampu, Padanglua, Sariak, Guguak, Kototuo, dan IV Angkek. Selain itu, dipekerjakan juga para tahanan yang mendekam dalam tangsi Bukittinggi. Seiring dengan ditetapkannya batas-batas Bukittinggi (1888), maka pembangunan pasarnya juga semakin digiatkan. Pada tahun 1890 dibangun sebuah loods (orang Minang menyebutnya dengan loih) di tengah pasar Bukittingi. Masyarakat menyebutnya dengan Loih Galuang (Los Melengkung) karena atapnya berbentuk setengah lingkaran (melengkung). Biaya pembangunannya berasal dari Pasar Fonds dan pinjaman dari Singgalang Fonds sebanyak f.400 ,-.

Dana pinjaman itu digunakan untuk membeli bahan bangunan, seperti besi dan seng. Adapun bahan-bahan bangunan lainnya, seperti kayu, pasir, dan batu dibebankan kepada nagari-nagari dalam wilayah Onderafdeeling Oud Agam. Demikian juga pekerjanya diambil dari daerah itu. Mereka dipekerjakan sebagai tenaga rodi bersama-sama dengan para tahanan dari tangsi Bukittinggi. Enam tahun kemudian (1896) dibangun lagi sebuah loods di bagian Timurnya. Kedua los itu diperuntukan bagi pedagang kain, kelontong, dan sejenisnya. Pada tahun 1900 dibangun lagi sebuah loods yang khusus untuk menjual daging dan ikan basah, baik ikan air tawar maupun ikan laut. Loods itu dibangun di pinggang bukit sebelah Timur supaya kotoran dan air limbahnya dapat dialirkan langsung ke selokan (bandar) yang mengalir di kaki bukit itu. Oleh karena lokasinya itu berada di kemiringan, maka pasar itu dinamakan oleh masyarakat dengan Pasar Teleng (Miring).

Adapun rumah potongnya dibangun di sisi sebelah Selatan, persis si pinggir anak sungai, sehingga memudahkan pula untuk membuang kotoran dan sisa penyembelihan hewan. Sekitar 500 m ke arah Baratnya didirikan pula Pasar Ternak. Penataan Pasar Bukittinggi dilakukan secara besar-besaran pada masa pemerintahan Controleur Oud Agam, L.C. Westenenk (1901-1909). Lokasi pusat pasar diperluas dengan mendatarkan gundukan tanah bukit di sekitarnya. Warung-warung yang tidak teratur letaknya dirobohkan. Sebagai gantinya dibangun beberapa loods dengan mengikuti topografis Bukittinggi yang berbukit itu, sehingga pasar Bukittinggi menjadi bertingkat-tingkat. Untuk menutupi biaya perbaikan dan pembangunan pasar Bukittinggi yang relatif besar itu, Controleur Westenenk meninjam uang kepada N.I. Escompto Maatschappij sebanyak f.12 .000'-.

Sebagai jaminan diborohkannya pasar Bukittinggi. Loods yang dibangun berjumlah sebanyak 6 buah. Masing-masingnya tiga loods dibangun bersebelahan dengan Loih Galuang, satu loods dibangun di sebelah Timur Laut yang lokasinya lebih rendah. Loods ini dibangun khusus untuk menampung pedagang ikan kering dan dinamakan dengan Loih Maco.

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