Pemberontakan Orang Cina Di Batavia

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Pemberontakan Orang Cina Di Batavia - Selamat datang di sejarahumum.com, dalam pembahasan kali ini akan mengulas lengkap tentang Pemberontakan Orang Cina Di Batavia. Pada saat orang Belanda menaklukan Jacatra dan mendirikan Batavia (sekarang Jakarta), mereka mendapati orang Cina sudah ada di Jawa dan aktif dalam perdagangan. Jan Pietterzoon Coen, Gubernur Jendaral VOC (1618-1623), menyadari kekuatan penduduk Cina di wilayah itu dan memutuskan menggunakan mereka sebagai pengecer karena mereka melebihi kita (Belanda) dari segi kemampuan. Orang Cina bahkan dibujuk agar mau pindah ke Jakarta untuk membantu mengembangkan kota itu. Orang Belanda dan orang Cina hidup berdampingan dengan damai, dan berbeda dengan orang Cina Manila, orang Cina di Jawa diterima oleh penguasa Belanda. Kecuali di Kalimantan barat. Di situ penambang Cina, yang sudah membentuk kongsi sebelum orang Belanda tiba, menolak tunduk pada penguasa Belanda, yang kemudian menghancurkan mereka.

Pemberontakan Orang Cina Di Batavia
 
Jumlah orang Cina di Batavia naik dengan cepat dan kekuatan ekonomi mereka juga meningkat pada awal tahun 1700-an, jumlah orang Cina di Batavia mencapai 30.000 orang. Penguasa Belanda cenderung korup dan makin lama makin menerapkan peraturan-peraturan yang keras terhadap orang Cina pada masa-masa krisis ekonomi ini. Desas-desus terus terdengar bahwa orang Cina akan diusir dari Indonesia kolonial, dan bahwa orang Cina diluar benteng sudah menyiapkan diri untuk melancarkan pemberontakan. Keputusan Gubernur Belanda untuk mengusir orang Cina memicu Angke (Red River) 1740, Tragedi Angke (Kali Merah) 1740. Dalam peristiwa itu 10.000 orang Cina dibantai, sebagian besar diantara mereka adalah perempuan dan anak-anak.
Orang Cina melarikan dari Batavia menuju wilayah-wilayah lain di Jawa, bergabung kekuatan dengan orang Jawa yang tengah terlibat pemberontakan melawan Belanda. Sebab-sebab pemberontakan itu kompleks, antara lain perlakuan keras atas orang Cina dan praktik korup penguasa Belanda dan para pejabat Cina yang diangkat Belanda. Peraturan untuk mengendalikan orang Cina diperketat setelah pemberontak itu tetapi kemudian,karena kebutuhan Belanda terpaksa mengundurkan kebijakan itu. 

Meski jumlah orang Cina di Asia Tenggara pada jaman itu tidak besar, namun jumlah itu tetap masih lebih besar dari pada jumah orang Barat. Untuk mengeruk untung dari wilayah-wilayah belum tergarap di Asia Tenggara, kekuasaan-kekuasaan kolonial tidak berkepentingan untuk mengusir pekerja dan penguasa Cina, karena lebih banyak lagi orang Cina yang dibutuhkan.
Migrasi besar-besaran orang Cina ke Asia Tenggara berlangsung pada pertengahan abad ke 19 setelah dinasti Qing ditaklukan oleh kekuasaan Barat.Kekacauan di Cina terjadi bersamaan dengan ekspansi Barat di Asia Tenggara. Dan peluang-peluang baru yang menyertai ekspansi itu.Faktor-faktor penarik (peluang ekonomi di Asia Tenggara) dan faktor-faktor pendorong (kemiskinan dan kekacauan Cina) merupakan penyebab kehadiran banyak sekali migran Cina di Asia Tenggara. Sumber tradisional migran Cina adalah dua propinsi di selatan: Fujian (Fuchien) dan Guandong (Kwangtung); kemudian, orang Cina dari propinsi-propinsi lain mengikuti peraturan-peraturan yang diskriminatif pada orang Cina dari waktu ke waktu, secara keseluruhan kedua pihak pada akhirnya menemukan titik temu tertentu karena saling membutuhkan.

Pada periode kolonial pra abad 20 kecuali di Thailand, yang tidak pernah dijajah konflik-konflik besar terjadi antara orang Cina dan orang barat. Konflik serius antara orang Cina dengan apa yang disebut penduduk asli jarang terjadi. Kebangkitan nasionalisme di Cina daratan pada awal abad 20, yang menjalar ke Asia Tenggara, menimbulkan kekhawatiran di sejumlah Negara tetapi segera dapat dikendalikan. Namun, nasionalisme Cina menjadi tantangan Thai. Pada tahun 1908, tiga bulan sebelum kematian Raja Chulonkorn, penduduk Cina di Bangkok mogok. Mereka menolak bekerja atau menjual barang, sebagai protes atas kenaikan pajak. Pemogokan itu menimbulkan kesengsaraan bagi penduduk Bangkok yang bergantung pada orang Cina untuk memperoleh makanan dan keperluan sehari-hari.
Raja Wachhirawut, yang menggantikan Chulongkorn, menyuarakan amarah rakyat pada orang Cina, menuduh mereka melakukan; aksi-aksi tidak patriotik.'Kebangkitan nasionalisme Cina sebagai idiologi juga dipandang ancaman bagi sistem kerajaan. Ia menulis dua famlet, berjudul' Yahudi dari timur' dan ' ganjalan-ganjalan pada roda-roda kita,' yang berisi kecaman mengenai orang Cina di Thailand. Dari tahun 1913 hingga 1925, Thailand mengeluarkan sejumlah undang-undang untuk membendung nasionalisme Cina dan memaksa orang Cina menjadi warga negara Thailand. Pada tahun 1913, Thailand mengeluarkan undang-undang, yang pertama, mengenai kewarganegaraan, yang menetapkan bahwa semua orang Cina kelahiran setempat adalah warga Negara Thai, dan pada tahun berikut sebuah undang-undang dikeluarkan untuk mengendalikan kegiatan perhimpunan-perhimpunan Cina.
Pada tahun 1927, ketika Raja Prachadhipok menggantikan ayahnya, ia mulai membatasi jumlah migran Cina ke Thailand. Setelah revolusi tahun 1932, militer semakin kuat dan Phibulsongkhram, perdana mentri sejak tahun 1938, mengambil langkah-langkah anti-Cina: ia menutup surat kabar berbahasa Cina dan sekolah Cina, melarang perhimpunan-perhimpunan rahasia Cina, dan mengendalikan aliran uang orang Cina ke Cina. Ia juga menerbitkan undang-undang yang menetapkan bidang pekerjaan tertentu semata-mata hanya untuk orang Thai asli..
Meski ada peraturan-peraturan ini, deskriminasi Thai terhadap orang Cina boleh dikatakan lunak. Tidak ada catatan mengenai konflik besar dengan kekerasan antara orang Thai dan orang Cina pada abad ke 19 atau abad 20. Ini kemungkinan disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor. Berbeda dengan banyak Asia Tenggara lain, Thailand tidak pernah dijajah dan orang Thai sudah merancang mekanisme untuk orang Cina yang ingin menjadi warga Negara Thailand, dan banyak orang Cina yang berasimilasi sepenuhnya setelah generasi ke dua. Ini berbeda sekali dengan situasi di berbagai Negara Asia Tenggara: di situ orang Cina masih tetap dapat diidentifikasi secara sosial. Juga penting adalah pertautan kepentingan ekonomi antar orang Thai dan orang Cina.
Jelas,hubungan antar orang Cina setempat dengan pemerintahan kolonial tidak selalu harmonis. Masalah kekuatan ekonomi orang Cina tidak pernah berhasil dipecahkan dengan memuaskan bagi pemerintah kolonial, yang juga khawatir mengenai kerja sama antara orang Cina dengan penduduk asli dan perjuangan anti- kolonialisme yang mulai muncul. Tidak mengherankan bila pemerintah kolonial mengandalkan diri dari pada kebijakan divide et impera di Asia Tenggara. Hanya Thailand yang dapat menjalankan kebijakan integrasi yang berhasil.
1. Aksi anti Cina

Periode pasca kolonial di Indonesia Konflik antara penduduk asli dan orang cina sering terjadi Indonensia. Ini tetap terjadi, meskipun ada fakta daftar panjang konflik yang terjadi dalam jaman kolonial menunjukan konflik terjadi terutama penguasa India Timur Belanda dan orang Cina dengan penduduk asli jarang terjadi. Keadaan berubah setelah Indonesia menyatakan kemerdekaannya. Belanda ingin mengembalikan kekuasaan kolonial ke Indonesia sementara orang Indonesia bersikeras untuk mewujudkan kemerdekaannya. Krisis kekuasaan berakhir dengan kekacauan, dan banyak orang Cina yang kehilangan harta dan nyawa. Perkosaan perempuan Cina oleh sejumlah pejuang revolusi yang tidak bertanggung jawab juga terjadi. Dibiarkan sendiri untuk membela diri, warga Cina kemudian membentuk Bao An Dui (Pao An Tui), sebuah kelompok keamanan yang konon mendapat persenjataan dari Belanda. Peristiwa ini memperburuk hubungan warga antara warga Cina dan nasionalis Indonesia.
Pertentangan pribumi dengan etnis Cina karena faktor ekonomi bukan hal baru. Misalnya pada tahun 1909 di Betawi (Jakarta) didirikan organisasi dagang dengan nama Sarekat Dagang Islam (SDI). Pada 1911 di Bogor didirikan SDI yang kedua. Pendirinya adalah Tirtoadisurjo, dengan cita-cita mendirikan persekutuan dagang perkoperasian Indonesia bertujuan utama mematahkan dominasi ekonomi pengusaha Cina dalam bisnis bahan dan industri batik. Untuk mencapai tujuan itu, didirikan SDI yang ketiga di Solo (akhir 1911) oleh H. Samanhudi, seorang pedagang besar batik di Solo, dengan tujuan memajukan kehidupan ekonomi rakyat di bawah bendera Isl.

Keinginan untuk membatasi kekuatan ekonomi warga Cina di mulai tahun 1950-an melalui apa yang dinamakan sistem benteng, yang mendahulukan orang Indonesia asli daripada orang Cina dalam pemberian lisensi impor. Ini menyebabkan timbulnya apa yang dinamakan system Ali Baba, ketika orang Indonesia asli tidak mampu menjalankan usaha karena tidak berpengalaman atau tidak bermodal. Ada upaya lain untuk mencapai tujuan serupa mengurangi kekuatan ekonomi warga Cina melalui peraturan-Peraturan itu diprakarsai oleh menteri perdagangan, Rachmat Muljomiseno, seorang pemimpin Nahdatul Ulama, sebuah organisasi Islam penting. Diterbitkan kemudian sebagai dekrit Presiden No, 10 (atau PP 10) pada tahun 1959. Peraturan itu melarang orang asing melakukan kegiatan dagang eceran di pedesaan. Peraturan ini mulai berlaku 1 Januari 1960, mewajibkan semua pedagang eceran Cina di daerah pedalaman ditutup.

Namun dalam pelaksanaannya bukan hanya usahanya yang ditutup, tetapi juga dilaksanakan larangan pemukiman etnis Cina. Seperti yang dilakukan Kolonel Kosasih, Panglima Jawa Barat. Bahkan Kolonel ini menembak mati dua orang perempuan Cina yang mencoba melawan penggusiran itu (baca "Hoakiau di Indonesia, " 1998, Pramoedya Ananta Tour). Larangan itu terbatas pada orang Cina tetapi arena persoalan kewarganegaraan belum dipecahkan, banyak orang Cina yang masih digolongkan sebagai orang asing. Akibatnya, boleh dikatakan hampir seluruh masyarakat Cina di pedesaan terkena dampaknya. Pedagang eceran Cina dipaksa menutup toko dan kegiatan mereka atau mengalihkan kepada koperasi. Ketika sejumlah warga Cina di Jawa barat menolak mematuhi larangan itu. Militer campur tangan untuk melaksanakan peraturan itu dengan akibat timbul konflik yang mengakibatkan sejumlah orang Cina kehilangan nyawa dan terdapat lebih dari 100.000 warga Cina meninggalkan Indonesia, yang sebagian besar pergi ke Cina.

Keluarnya Cina ke Indonesia mempengaruhi kinerja ekonomi Indonesia. Posisi Soekarno juga terancam oleh krisis. Membangkitkan lawan dari kalangan militer yang pro Soviet. Beijing menyadari akibat dari keluarnya orang Cina dari Indonesia dan segera menghentikan proses repatriasi. Gerakan anti Cina mereda. PP 10 tidak lagi diperbelakukan.

Melalui PP 10, kekuatan ekonomi warga Cina untuk sementara ditekan tetapi koperasi tidak mampu menggantikan warga Cina dalam waktu singkat. Sekali lagi, ini karena terjadi kerusuhan bulan Mei 1998 sebelum presiden Suharto jatuh. Kerusuhan tiodak saja terjadi di Jakarta tetapi juga di kota-kota lain. Tetapi kerusuhan di ibu kota mendapat perhatian yang paling besar. Selama kerusuhan di Jakarta, antara 13-14 Mei, sejumlah perusahaan dan kekayaan warga Cina dijarah dan dibakar, dan perempuan Cina dalam sejumlah yang tidak diketahui diperkosa dan dibunuh. Seperti dalam kaitan dengan konflik-konflik lain yang tejadi belakangan ini di Indonesia, kecaman ditujukan kepada kekuatan keamanan, polisi, dan militer, yang tidak melakukan interversi dengan segera dan secara efektif untuk menghentikan kekerasan.

Bahkan, laporan Tim Gabungan Pencari Fakta tanggal 23 Oktober 1998 . Mengatakan bahwa serangan-serangan menunjukan pola salah satu segmen militer Indonesia. Laporan itu menyiratkan bahwa tujuan kerusuhan adalah menciptakan kekacauan yang dapat menguntungkan kepentingan pihak-pihak tertentu. Bahkan dapat dikatakan bahwa tujuan sebenarnya adalah meneror warga Cina agar mereka memilih meninggalkan Indonesia agar kedudukan ekonomi yang mereka tinggalkan dapat di isi oleh penduduk asli.

A. Sebab Orang-orang Cina Berontak 

Meningkatnya populasi etnis Tionghoa di Batavia, sehingga pengangguran meningkat. Dan karena terkekangnya suatu kebebasan berdagang di wilayah nusantara dan terjadi pungli di tubuh VOC (contohnya surat izin bermukim yang disebut permissiebriefjes atau surat pas) biaya resmi pembuatan kartu tersebut hanya 2 ringgit namun, akibat dari pungli tersebut menjadi naik, dan karena tidak memiliki kartu tersebut orang-orang Cina harus dideportasi ke negaranya atau dipekerjakan di kebun-kebun pala milik VOC di Sri Langka.
B. Proses Kejadian 

a) Lokasi : di Batavia dan Jawa 
b) pada abad ke 18 (tahun 1740-1741) 
c) Tokoh : Oey Panko atau Khe Panjang dan Raja Pakubuwana II 

C. Akibat Dari Kejadian

a) Bagi bangsa Indonesi : kerugian karena wilayah Batavia porak poranda akibat pemberontakan dan pencurian barang-barang oleh orang-orang Cina. 
b) Bagi VOC: keuntungan karena penyelewengan harga pembuatan surat pas yang lebih mahal dan kerugian karena benteng VOC di Kartasura diserang oleh orang-orang Cina dan dibantu Raja Pakubuwana II serta orang-orang pribumi sehingga jatuh banyak korban dari pihak VOC.
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