Sejarah Perlawanan Rakyat Indonesia Terhadap Penjajah Bangsa Barat

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Perlawanan Rakyat Indonesia Terhadap Penjajah Bangsa Barat - Pada kesempatan kali ini penulis akan membahas lengkap tentang Sejarah Perlawanan Rakyat Indonesia Terhadap Penjajah Bangsa Barat. Untuk pembahasan lebih lengkapnya silahkan teman-teman simak berikut ini:

Sejarah Perlawanan Rakyat Indonesia Terhadap Penjajah Bangsa Barat

A.Perlawanan Terhadap Kekuasaan Portugis.


1.Perlawanan Kesultanan Ternate

Perlawanan rakyat Ternate didorong oleh tindakan bangsa Portugis yang sewenang-wenang dan merugikan rakyat. Perlawanan Ternate dipimpin oleh Sultan Hairun dari Ternate. Seluruh rakyat dari Irian sampai ke Jawa diserukan untuk melakukan perlawanan. Sayang sekali Sultan Hairun ditipu oleh Portugis dan dihukum mati pada tahun 1570.Tetapi kecongkakan Portugis akhirnya menuai balasan dengan keberhasilan Sultan Baabullah dalam mengusir Portugis dari bumi Maluku tahun 1575. Selanjutnya Portugis menyingkir ke daerah Timor Timur (Timor Loro Sae).

2. Perlawanan Kesultanan Demak

Dominasi Portugis di Malaka telah mendesak dan merugikan kegiatan perdagangan orang-orang Islam. Oleh karena itu , Sultan Demak R. Patah mengirim pasukannya di bawah Pati Unus untuk menyerang Portugis di Malaka. Pati Unus melancarkan serangannya pada tahun 1527, tentara Demak kembali melancarkan serangan terhadap Portugis yang mulai menanam pengaruhnya di Sunda Kelapa. Di bawah pimpinan Fatahillah, tentara Demak berhasil mengusir Portugis dari Sunda Kelapa. Nama Sunda Kelapa kemudian diubah menjadi Jayakarta.

3. Perlawanan Kesultanan Aceh

Setelah menguasai Malaka, Portugis kemudian mengirimkan pasukannya untuk menundukkan Aceh. Usaha inipun mengalami kegagalan. Serangan Portugis ke Aceh menunjukkan bahwa kekuasaan Portugis di Malaka telah mengancam dan merugikan Aceh. Apalagi kegiatan monopoli perdagangannya yang sangat menyulitkan rakyat Aceh. Untuk mengusir Portugis dari Malaka, Aceh menyerang kedudukan Portugis di Malaka.

Pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1639), armada kekuatan Aceh telah disiapkan untuk menyerang kedudukan Portugis di Malaka. Saat itu Aceh telah memiliki armada laut yang mampu mengangkut 800 prajurit. Pada tahun 1629, Aceh mencoba menaklukkan Portugis. Penyerangan yang dilakukan Aceh ini belum berhasil mendapat kemenangan. Namun , Aceh masih tetap meneruskan perjuangan melawan Portugis.

B.Perlawanan Terhadap VOC


1.Perlawanan Kesultanan Mataram

Pada awalnya Mataram dengan Belanda menjalin hubungan baik. Belanda diizinkan mendirikan benteng (loji) untuk kantor dagang di Jepara. Belanda juga memberikan dua meriam terbaik untuk Kerajaan Mataram. Dalam perkembangannya, terjadi perselisihan antara Mataram-Belanda. Pada tanggal 8 November 1618, Gubernur Jenderal VOC Jan Pieterzoon Coen memerintahkan Van der Marct menyerang Jepara.

Peristiwa tersebut memperuncing perselisihan antara Mataram dengan Belanda. Raja Mataram Sultan Agung segera mempersiapkan serangan terhadap VOC di Batavia. Serangan pertama dilakukan pada tahun 1628. Pasukan Mataram yang dipimpin Tumenanggung Baurekso tiba di Batavia tanggal 22 Agustus 1628. Pasukan ini kemudian disusul pasukan Tumenanggung Sura Agul-Agul, yang dibantu dua bersaudara, yakni Kiai Dipati Mandurojo dan kiai Upa Santa. Tidak kurang dari 1000 prajurit Mataram gugur dalam perlawanan tersebut. Mataram segera mempersiapkan serangan kedua dipimpin Kyai Adipati Juminah, Kiai A. Puger, dan K. A Purbaya

Serangan dimulai tanggal 1 Agustus 1629 dan berakhir 1 Oktober 1629. Serangan kedua inipun juga gagal, selain karena faktor kelemahan serangan pertama, lumbung padi persediaan makanan, banyak dihancurkan Belanda. Disamping Sultan Agung, perlawanan juga dilakukan oleh Pangeran Mangkubumi, dan Mas Said.

2. Perlawanan Kesultanan Gowa

Dalam lalu lintas perdagangan, Gowa menjadi Bandar antara jalur perdagangan Malaka dan Maluku. Sebelum rempah-rempah dari Maluku dibawa sampai ke Malaka, maka singgah dahulu di Gowa, begitu juga sebaliknya. Melihat kedudukan Gowa yang begitu penting , maka VOC ingin sekali menguasai Bandar di Gowa. Usaha yang dilakukan adalah melakukan blokade terhadap Pelabuhan Sombaopu. Disamping itu, kapal-kapal VOC juga diperintahkan untuk merusak dan menangkap kapal-kapal pribumi maupun kapal-kapal asing.

Menghadapi perkembangan yang semakin genting itu , maka raja Gowa , Sultan Hasanuddin mempersiapkan pasukan dengan segala perlengkapan untuk menghadapi VOC. Beberapa kerajaan sekutu juga disiapkan. Benteng-benteng dibangun di sepanjang pantai kerajaan. Sementara itu, VOC dalam rangka menerapkan politik adu domba, telah menjalin hubungan dengan seorang pangeran Bugis dari Bone bernama Arung Palaka. Meletuslah perang antara VOC dengan Gowa pada 7 juli 1667. Tentara VOC dipimpin Spelman yang diperkuat pengikut Arung Palaka menggempur Gowa. Karena kalah persenjataan , benteng pertahanan tentara Gowa di Barombang dapat diduduki oleh pasukan Arung Palaka. Perselisihan ini diakhiri dengan ditandatanganinya perjanjian Bongaya , yang isinya sebagai berikut:


1) Gowa harus mengikuti hak monopoli.
2) Semua orang Barat, kecuali Belanda harus meninggalkan wilayah kekuasaan Gowa.
3) Gowa harus membayar biaya perang.
4) Di Makassar dibangun benteng-benteng VOC.

C. Perlawanan Terhadap Penjajahan Belanda.


1.Perlawanan Rakyat Maluku (1817).

Perlawanan rakyat Maluku terhadap Belanda, hal itu disebabkan karena Belanda datang ke Nusantara untuk mendapatkan rempa-rempah dengan harga yang semurah-murahnya untuk keuntungan yang berlipat ganda. Sehingga semua itu sangatlah memberatkan rakyat. Hingga datanglah Inggris untuk mendapat simpati dari rakyat Maluku, dengan motif selalu membantu rakyat dari Belanda. Namun Belanda kembali berkuasa dari tangan inggris setelah diterapkannya Konvensi London tahun 1814.

Dan pada tanggal 17 Mei 1817 pemuda Sapurua yang dipimpin Pattimura, memulai perlawanan terhadap Belanda untuk merebut benteng Duurstede. Bentengpun akhirnya dapat dikuasai dan Rasiden Van Der Berg ditembak mati. Serangan lain juga terjadi di daerah Maluku lain, sehingga hal itu mengacaukan Belanda. Belandapun semakin meningkatkan ofensifnya menumpas gerakan perlawanan rakyat Maluku. Hingga terjadilah pertempuran sengit secara Sporadis antara rakyat Maluku dengan Belanda. Belandapun mendatangkan bantuan dari Batavia hingga pasukan Pattimura terdesak oleh Belanda. Pada bulan Agustus Pattimura menyingkir ke hutan dan melakukan perang Gerilya. Benteng Deverdijk dapat dikuasai lagi oleh Belanda. Pattimura sangatlah terdesak hingga dapat ditangkap Belanda dan dihukum gantung di alun-alun Kota Ambon pada 16 Desember 1817.

2. Perlawanan Kaum Padri (1819-1832).

Awalnya kedatangan islam di daerah Minangkabau tidak mempengaruhi pola hidup kaum Adat. Tetapi setelah datangnya tiga orang haji dari Mekah yaitu H. Miskin, H. Sumanik, dan H. Piabang yang ingin meluruskannya ajaran islam, hal itu membuat adanya tantangan dari kaum Adat. Sehingga terjadilah perang antara kaum Adat dengan kaum Padri. Dan setelah Belanda menerima penyerahan daerah Sumatra Barat dari Inggris, Belanda membantu kaum Adat melawan kaum Padri. Namun setelah adanya perlawanan Diponegoro Di Jawa, menyebabkan kesulitan bagi pemerintah Hindia Belanda, hingga pemerintah Belanda berhasil membujuk kaum Padri untuk berunding. Kolonel Stuers pada tanggal 29 Oktober 1825 yang ditandatangani tanggal 15 November 1825 berhasil mengadakan perdamaian dengan kaum Padri yang diwakili Tuanku Keramat yang berisi :




a. Belanda akan mengakui kekuasaan Tuanku-Tuanku di Lintau, Limapuluh Kota, Telawas, dan Agam.
b. Kedua belah pihak akan melindungi orang-orang yang sedang dalam perjalanan dan para pedagang.
c. Kedua belah pihak akan melindungi orang-orang yang kembali dari pengungsian.

Peperangan masih berlanjut dengan yang serangan Belanda dipusatkan ke Bonjol. Belanda menggunakan siasat Devide at Empera dengan cara mendatangkan pasukan Sentot Prawirodirjo dari Jawa. Pertempuran antara kaum Padri dan kaum Adat terjadi di kota Lawas. Perang saudara ini di manfaatkan Belanda untuk menguasai Sumatra dengan membantu kaum Adat, namun kaum Adat sadar bahwa mereka hanya dimanfaatkan Belanda.Akhirnya kaum kaum Padri dan kaum Adat bersatu melawan Belanda. Perang padri akhirnya dimenangkan Belanda setelah benteng Bonjol berhasil direbut belanda. Imam Bonjol tertangkap pada tahun 1837 dan di buang ke Cianjur, dan tahun 1864 dipindahkan ke Manado hingga wafat. Namun setelah wafatnya imam Bonjol, peperangan masih tetaplah berlanjut di dhaerah Sumatra Barat.

3. Perlawanan Diponogoro (1825-1830).

Pangeran diponogoro adalah bangsawan mataram yang berusaha membebaskan tanah mataram dari dominasi Belanda. Perlawanan terjadi antara tahun 1825-1830. perang yang terjadi, dilatar belakangi karena berbagai masalahyang muncul.




a) Kerajaan mataram semakin sempit kekuasaannya, akibat Belanda.
a. Campur tangan belanda dalam urusan istana mataram.
b. Penderitaan dan kesengsaraan mataram kerena banyak pajak yang dipungut Belanda.
c. Kaum ulama kecewa karena berkembangnya budaya barat.
d. Kaum bangsawan tidak diperkenankan menyewakan tanah.

Masalah yang khusus yaitu Belanda membuat jalan di Tegalrejo yang melalui makam leluhur Dipenogoro tanpa izin terlebih dahulu. Perlawanan Diponegoro mendapat dukungan dari Kyai Maja, Sentot Prawiro Direjo, dan pangeran Mangku Bumi. Dalam perang, Dipenogoro melakukan siasat Perang Gerilya, sehingga Belanda kewalahan dalam menghadapinya. Belanda mengangkat Jendral De Koock untuk menghadapi Diponogoro dengan siasat Benteng Stelsel, artinya setiap daerah yang dikuasainya segera dibangun benteng, kemudian antara benteng yang satu dengan yang lainnya dihubungkan jalan untuk gerak cepat pasukan. Diponegoro ditangkap dalam perundingan dan di asingkan ke Batavia, kemudian ke Manado dan akhirnya ke Makassar sampai meninggal dunia pada 8 Januari 1855.

4. Perang Jagaraga.

Pada tahun 1844, kapal Belanda terdampar di Pantai Buleleng. Sesuai dengan hukum Tawan Karang, kapal itu disita oleh kerajaan Buleleng. Tetapi Belanda menuntut agar kapal itu dikembalikan dan seluruh kerajaan di Bali tunduk kepada Belanda. Tetapi Raja Beleleng menolaknya, sehingga pada tahun 1846, Belanda mendaratkan 1700 pasukan dan terjadilah pertempuran di Buleleng. Kerajaan Buleleng dipimpin oleh Patihnya,Gusti Ktut Jelantik. Namun pertempuran itu gagal yang kekalahan itu dianggap sebagai tunduknya semua kerajaan di Bali terhadap Belanda.

Akhirnya Raja dan Patih Buleleng bersatu dengan kerajaan lain seperti Karangasem, Klungkung, Mengwi,dan Bandung sepakat untuk menyerang pos-pos Belanda yang dipimpin Gusti Ktut Jelantik. Sehingga pada tahun 1848 belanda mengirim pasukan 2300 orang. Belanda mengancam dan menuntut raja-raja di Bali. Namun, tuntutan itu tidak dihiraukan oleh raja dan rakyat Bali. Sehingga pada tahun 1849, pihak Belanda kembali mengirim pasukan yang lebih banyak, sekitar 5000 serdadu ke Bali. Selanjutnya, berkobarlah pertempuran sengit yang dikenal sebagai Perang Jagaraga (Perang Puputan) atau perang hingga seluruh pasukan Bali gugur. Benteng Jagaraga akhirnya dapat diduduki Belanda. Maka pada tahun 1849 semua kerajaan di Bali sudah berada di bawah kekuasaan Belanda.




5. Perang Banjar (1859-1863).

Pada tahun 1859 terjadi Perang Banjar. Perang itu timbul, karena :

a. Dhaerah kekuasaan Belanda di Kalimantan Selatan semakin diperluas, dan dhaerah kerajaan makin dipersempit oleh Belanda.
b. Rakyat hidup menderita karena beban pajak dan kewajiban kerja paksa.
c. Pemerintah Belanda melakukan intervensi dalam urusan Kerajaan banjar.

Pada tahun 1857 terjadi konflik internal dalam pergantian raja. Belanda menunjuk Pangeran Tamjidillah sebagai sultan, yang tidak dikehendaki rakyat. Penangkapan Pangeran Prabu Anom dan pengambilalihan Kesultanan banjar oleh Belanda pada tahun 1859, yang menimbulkan kekecewaan mendalam bagi kaum bangsawan dan rakyat, sehingga muncullah Pangeran Antasari dan Pangeran Hidayat memimpin perlawanan. Pada bulan April tahun 1859, pasukan Banjar menyerang pos-pos Belanda, seperti di Martapura, sekitar sungai Barito, dan di Tabanio.

Bahkan pasukan Pangeran Hidayat yang dipimpin Tumenggung Surapati berhasil membakar dan menenggelamkan kapal Onrust milik Belanda. Sehingga pada tanggal 11 Juni 1860, Belanda secara resmi menghapus kesultanan Banjar dan Banjar diperintah oleh seorang penguasa Hindia Belanda. Pangeran Antasari terus berjuang memimpin perlawanan, walaupun Kyai Damang Leman menyerah dan Pangeran Hidayatullah tertangkap dan dibuang ke Cianjur.

Bahkan ia diangkat oleh rakyat menjadi pemimpin tertinggi agama dengan gelar Panembahan Amirudin Khalifatul Mukminin pada tanggal 14 maret 1862. Ia dibantu para pemimpin yang lalin, seperti Pangeran Miradipa, Tumenggung Surapati dan Gusti Umah untuk memutuskan pertahanan di Hulu Taweh. Perlawanan Antasari berakhir sampai ia meninggal pada 11 oktober 1862, yang kemudian perlawanannya dilanjutkan putranya, yaitu pangeran Muhamad Seman.


6. Perlawanan Rakyat Aceh (1873-1912).

Pertempuran ini dilatar belakangi karena :

a. Aceh merupakan pusat perdagangan, sehingga Aceh banyakmenghasilkan lada dan tambang serta hasil hutan. Oeh karena itu Belanda berambisi untuk mendudukinya.
b. Aceh semakin terancam dengan adanya Traktat Sumatera, yang berisi pemberian kebebasan bagi Belanda untuk memperluas daerah kekuasaan di Sumatera, termasuk Aceh.
c. Aceh berusaha untuk memperkuat diri dengan mengadakan hubungan dengan Turki, Konsul Italia, dan Konsul Amerika Serikat di Singapura.
d. Belanda khawatir, pada 26 Maret 1873 memaklumkan perang kepada Aceh.
e. Strategi Belanda untuk mengalahkan Aceh:

1) Menghancurkan seluruh ulama dan pemimpin dari pusat kegiatan.
2) Membentuk pasukan gerak cepat.
3) Semua pemimpin dan ulama yang tertangkap harus menandatangani perjanjian.
4) Setelah melakuan operasi militer, Belanda mengikuti kegiatan perdamaian rehabilitasi (pasifkasi).
5) Bersikap lunak terhadap para bangsawan.

Pada 8 April 1873, Belanda menguasai masjid Raya Aceh, banyak mengundang para tokoh dan rakyat untuk bergabungberjuang melawan Belanda, diantaranya Imam lueng Bata, Cut Banta, Tengku Cik Ditiro, Teuku Umar, dan istrinya Cut Nyak Dien.Pada tahun 1874, Belanda berhasil menduduki istana kesultanan. Karena wilayah Aceh sangat kuat dalam militernya, maka Belanda malakukan politik Devide Et Impera (memecah belah dan menguasai). Pada bulan Agustus 1893, Teuku Umar menyatakan tunduk kepada Belanda tanpa sebab, tetapi ia keluar dari Belanda pada 30 Maret 1896, dikarenakan keluarganya. Militer Aceh berencana melakukan penyerbuan Terhadap Belanda, namun kekuatan militer Aceh masih belum cukup kuat untuk melawan, sehingga Teuku Umar, dan Panglima Polim terpaksa mundur dari peperangan.

Pada 11 Februari 1899, Teuku Umar gugur karena terkena peluru ketika ia bersama pasukannya bersiap untuk pengepungan di Meulaboh, sehingga perjuangannya dilanjutkan oleh Cut Nyak Dien, dan mereka terus melakukan gerilya. Akhirnya Cut Nyak Dien berhasil ditangkap dan dibuang ke Sumedang, serta meninggal pada 6 November 1905.





Panglima Polim dan Sultan Daudsah dipaksa menyerah ketika Belanda bertingkah licik dengan menculik anggota-anggota keluarganya. Pada 1904, Sultan Aceh dipaksa untuk menandatangani plakat pendek yang isinya:

1. Aceh mengakui kedaulatan Belanda atas daerahnya.
2. Aceh tidak diperbolehkan berhubungan dengan bangsa lain selain Belanda.
3. Aceh menaati perintah dan peraturan Belanda.

Dengan adanya plakat tersebut, maka Belanda semakin mudah menguasai seluruh wilayah Aceh.

7. Perlawanan Si Singamangaraja XII.

Pada tahun 1870, Patuan Bosar Ompu Pulo Batu raja kerajaan Bakkara (Daerah Tapanuli) atau Si Singamangaraja XII sangat berpengaruh dan dihormati rakyatnya di tanah Batak yang sangat anti penjajahan. Sehingga Belanda ingin menguasai tanah Batak tersebut. Tetapi Si Singamangaraja XII bergerak memimpin perlawanan. Yang dilatar belakangi :


a. Si Singamangaraja XII menentang tindakan Belanda yang menyebarkan agama Kristen di Tapanuli dengan cara paksa.
b. Pada tahun 1878 Belanda menduduki dhaerah Silindung dengan alasan melindungi para zending (lembaga penyebar agama Kristen) di tanah Tapanuli.

Sejak tahun 1861 para zending telah menyebarkan agama Kristen di tanah Tapanuli. Yang awalnya tidak menimbulakan masalah. Tetapi, ketika Si Singamangaraja XII tampil sebagai raja, para zending nampak diperalat oleh Belanda. Hal itu membuat Si Singamangaraja XII tidak senang dengan berkembangnya pengaruh Belanda di Tapanuli. sehingga terjadilah pertempuran rakyat Batak melawan Belanda yang dipimpin Si Singamangaraja XII. Dan Belanda melakukan pengepungan di daerah Pakpak.

Pada tahun 1904 pasukan Belanda pimpinan Van Daalen dari Aceh Tengah berhasil mendesak pertahanan Si Singamangaraja XII. Pada tahun 1907, pasukan Marsose dipimpin oleh kapten Hans Christoffel berhasil menangkap Boru Sagala, istri Si Singamangaraja XII dan para pengikutnya menyelamatkan diri ke hutan Simsim. Akhirnya, dalam pertempuran tanggal 17 Juni 1907, Si Singamangaraja XII gugur beserta seorang putri dan dua orang putranya.


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